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McCarron-Dial System (An Approach to Clinical, Vocational, and Educational Evaluation)
직업, 교육, 신경정신측정을 위한 직업재활평가도구입니다. MDS는 다음의 5가지 기능을 평가합니다.
1. 직업의 평가 (For Vocational Evaluation)
2. 신경정신학의 평가 (For Neurosychological Evaluation)
3. 시각장애의 정도 (For The Visually Impaired)
4. 과도기의 정도 (For Transitional Planning)
5. 유아기의 평가 (For Early Childhood)
MDS는 성인의 직업교육 및 신경심리학 장애를 임상평가하는데 유용한 검사도구입니다. 피실험자의 직업프로그램 첫 12개월 동안 작업표본과 행동척도에 의해 측정되는 언어인지, 감각, 동기, 정서, 통합대응 5가지 요소가 직업능력을 예측하는데 사용됩니다.
?능숙도를 통해 임금능력 또한 예측이 가능합니다. 임상평가시 검사도구는 기본적으로 동일하지만 그 주안점이 상당히 다르기 때문에 진찰 및 병력, 신경심리학 테스트가 추가됩니다. 주안점은 크게 세 부분으로 나뉩니다. 첫째, 기질적 뇌증후군과 특이병변 유전자 진단. 둘째, 질환의 만성/급성 및 진행정도 판별. 셋째, 뇌기능장애가 학습 및 적응행동에 미치는 영향을 평가합니다.
1970년 시작된 종합연구프로그램의 결과인 MDS는 재활상담, 작업평가, 임상진단 외에도 지적장애, 뇌성마비, 정서장애, 약물/알코올중독, 시각/청각장애, 뇌종양 등의 장애를 가진 성인을 대상으로 한 프로그램 평가를 위해 사용되어왔습니다. MDS의 교육 및 연수가 가능해진 이래 9,000여명 이상의 전문가들이 관련 연수프로그램에 참여하였으며 현재 미국, 캐나다, 아일랜드, 호주, 덴마크, 스웨덴, 독일, 한국, 중국의 2,600여 시설에서 활발히 사용되고 있습니다.
#S102 MDES : McCarron Dial Evaluation System
① McCarron-Dial 평가 시스템 매뉴얼
② Bender 시각 근육 테스트
③ Koppitz 점수 시스템 매뉴얼
② 감정-행동 체크리스트
⑤ 개인프로그램 계획
#S103 HVDT : Haptic Visual Discrimination Test
① 피실험자에게 보여줄 여러 물건이 찍힌 사진판
② 접는 스크린
③ 모양, 크기, 문장 세트
④ HVDT 점수 양식서
⑦ HAPTIC 시각과정(운용법, 점수관리, 설명서)
?#S104 MAND : McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development
① 매뉴얼 자
⑥ 근육측정용으로 이용되는 특수 부품 케이스
The McCarron-Dial System (MDS) Since its inception 1970, the McCarron-Dial System (MDS) has been expanded and incorporated into many rehabilitation, public school and clinical settings to assess the educational and vocational potential of individuals with neuropsychological, sensory and/or physical disabilities. In this context, disabilities of a neuropsychological origin are presumed to have, as their primary etiology, a pathological deviation of structure or function in the higher brain centers. The disorder may be congenital or acquired; static, transient or progressive; or simply a significant deviation from normal development. Regardless of specific etiology, the primary functional limitations involve one or more of the higher cortical systems which mediate perception, memory, learning, cognition, language, affect and/or complex voluntary motor movement. As such, persons with specific disabilities such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, brain injury, hearing or vision impairments and learning disabilities have been evaluated using the MDS or special adaptations of the battery such as the CVES (Dial, Chan & Norton, 1990; Dial et al., 1991; Dial, Rubino-Watkins, Marek, Colaluca & Dial, 1998). The expanded MDS is based on a neuropsychological model which incorporates traditional views of brain function as well as the concepts of Luria (1973). Luria’s functional systems theory suggests that the brain is comprised of diverse, but overlapping systems which mediate all behavior including work-related behaviors (Chan et al., 1993); a discussion of Luria’s theory as it is applied to the MDS and CVES is presented in the next chapter. A multifactor approach to data gathering was viewed by McCarron and Dial as essential in the evaluation of higher cortical functions which relate to an individual’s ability to perform in a variety of independent living, work or educational settings. The process of developing, revising and expanding the MDS continues to date.
The development of the MDS has extended over a 30-year period, and the system continues to be expanded and cross-validated to meet the needs of providers and recipients of rehabilitation and neuropsychological services. Ongoing research in university and private settings has facilitated this development and has been encouraged by the system’s developers. Unlike many assessment batteries or systems, the MDS has evolved as a flexible model of evaluation based on neuropsychological principles which guide the interpretation of assessment data. Luria’s functional systems theory as well as findings in traditional neurology are coupled with the empirical observations from vocational evaluation, rehabilitation and education to form the conceptual framework of the system. The MDS describes the functional integrity of higher level brain systems (cognition, language, perception, voluntary movement, affect, etc.) through test performance, history and behavioral observations and correlates the descriptive data profiles with ecological outcomes such as activities of daily living, work and personal-social adjustment. Systematic methods of interpreting data with regard to these functional outcomes permit evaluators from various disciplines and professional backgrounds (vocational evaluation, education, occupational therapy, psychology, etc.) to effectively use the system for a variety of evaluative purposes in their particular settings. Furthermore, the MDS has proven its adaptability by meeting the needs of a changing assessment and rehabilitation environment, including changes in legislative requirements. An organized program to train professionals in the field has facilitated the effective use of the system. Since these training services were made available, over 9000 professionals have attended training programs related to the McCarron-Dial System. At present, the MDS (or component instruments) is actively used in over 2600 rehabilitation, educational and clinical settings throughout the United States, Canada, Ireland, Australia, Denmark, Sweden, West Germany, Korea, Crete and the Republic of China. The next chapter describes the empirical basis for the MDS and CVES with descriptions of validation studies.